PROFESSOR GIFT MUGANO (Ph. D)

PROFESSOR GIFT MUGANO (Ph.D)
Executive Director
  1. PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND

Professor Gift Mugano (Ph.D.) is a Visiting Professor of Economics at Durban University of Technology. He is a distinguished scholar and global authority on International Trade & Development with over fifteen (15) years of extensive experience ranging from research & publications, policy advisory, trade negotiations, lecturing, administration, leadership and consultancy work.To date, he has successfully supervised four (4) Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees and other several postgraduate students in the field of International Trade & Development and published twenty – six (26) articles and book chapters in international peer reviewed journals and books. He is a Research Associate and Visiting Scholar with Nelson Mandela University, Academic Supervisor with National University of Science and Technology, Academic Supervisor at the Trade Policy Training Centre in Africa (TRAPCA) (www.trapca.org) which is hosted by Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute (ESAMI) in Arusha Tanzania and Lund University (Sweden) and External Examiner for University of Cape Town’s Graduate School of Business, Durban University of Technology and University of Namibia’s Business School. Professor Mugano has done consultancy for National Opinion Research Centre (NORC) at the University of Chicago (USA), COMESA, UKAID/DFID, British Council, NIR Sweden, Adam Smith International (UK), IMC Worldwide LTD (UK), Cardno Emerging Markets (Belgium), KPMG (UK), The Palladium Group (UK), Ecorys (UK), Germany Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ), UNFPA, African Development Bank, USAID, International Labour Organisation (ILO), World Food Programme, Parliament of Zimbabwe, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, Government of Zimbabwe and several firms in the private sector. He sits on the boards of Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company, ZimTrade and Blackshark Protection Services. Over the years, he represented his country at various forums on trade negotiations and investment missions abroad (Heads of State & Government Summits, Council of Ministers, Senior Officials of Trade & Technical Committees) at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels in Belgium, Switzerland, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Botswana, People’s Republic of China and South Korea.

  1. ACADEMIC, ADMINISTRATIVE & LEADERSHIP POSITIONS
  • Visiting Professor of Economics, Durban University of Technology, South Africa, 19 May 2020 – Present.
  • Research Associate and Visiting Scholar of International Finance, Nelson Mandela University, South Africa, 3rd June 2014 – Present.
  • External Examiner for Innovative Finance for Africa, MPhil Development Finance, Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 2 January 2016 – Present.
  • External Examiner, Namibia Business School, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia, 2 January 2016 – Present.
  • Academic Supervisor, Trade Policy Training Centre in Africa (TRAPCA) (www.trapca.org) which is hosted by Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute (ESAMI), in Arusha Tanzania, and Lund University, Sweden, 1 April 2020 – Present.
  • Academic Supervisor, Graduate School of Business, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, 1 August 2018 – Present.
  • Guest Lecturer, Faculty of Social Studies, Zimbabwe National Defence University, Harare, Zimbabwe, 2 January 2014 – Present.
  • Chairman, Export Development Committee, ZimTrade Board, Harare, Zimbabwe, 9 August 2019 – Present.
  • Acting Chairman and Substantive Vice Chairman, Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company (ZISCO) Board, Kwekwe, Zimbabwe, 1 September 2019 – Present.
  • Board Member, ZimTrade, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1 August 2019 – Present.
  • Board Member, Blackshark Protection Services Zimbabwe (www.blackshark.co.zw), 20 Cambridge Road, Avondale, Harare Zimbabwe 1 January 2016 – Present.
  • Executive Director, Africa Economic Development Strategies (www.aeds-africa.com), Harare, Zimbabwe, June 2011 – Present.
  • Pro Vice Chancellor, Business Development & Strategic Partnerships, Zimbabwe Ezekiel Guti University, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 16 September 2019 – 23 April 2020.
  • Council Member & Member of Executive Committee of Council, Executive Management, Senate, Academic Board and other Principal Committees, Zimbabwe Ezekiel Guti University, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 16 September 2019 – 23 April 2020.
  • Acting Vice Chancellor, Zimbabwe Ezekiel Guti University, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 1 October 2019 – 30 November 2019.
  • Registrar & Secretary to the University Council, Executive Committee of Council, Executive Management, Senate, Academic Board and other Principal Committees, Zimbabwe Ezekiel Guti University, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 1 December 2017 – 15 September 2019.
  • Lecturer, Graduate School of Management, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, 1 January 2015 – 31 December 2017.
  • Acting Dean of Studies, Zimbabwe Ezekiel Guti University, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 1 May 2017 – 30 November 2017.
  • Faculty Coordinator, Faculty of Business, Economics and Accounting, Zimbabwe Ezekiel Guti University, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 2 January 2017 – 30 April 2017.
  • Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Business, Economics and Accounting, Zimbabwe Ezekiel Guti University, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 1 August 2016 – 30 November 2017.
  • Lecturer, Faculty of Commerce, Women’s University in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 2 January 2014 – 31 December 2016.
  • Lecturer, Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences (Business School & Economics Department), Nelson Mandela University, March 2012 – 2nd June 2014.
  • Lecturer, Faculty of Commerce, Bindura University of Science Education, Bindura, Zimbabwe, 14 February 2011 – 5 February 2012.
  • Economic Advisor (Economist, Senior Economist & Principal Economist), Government of Zimbabwe (Ministry of Industry and Commerce), 7th January 2005 – 28 February 2011, Harare, Zimbabwe. 
  1. INTERNATIONAL CONSULTING SERVICES
  • Consultant, Formulation of the Zimbabwe Private Sector Business Agenda, International Labour Organisation (ILO) & Employers Confederation of Zimbabwe (EMCOZ), Harare, Zimbabwe, September 2019 – Present.
  • Consultant, Food Security Analysis in Zimbabwe (Manicaland, Masvingo & Matebeleland North) under National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (USA) and USAID, Washington DC, USA, 10 October 2019  – 31 January 2020.
  • Consultant, Food Market Analysis in Zimbabwe (Manicaland, Masvingo & Matebeleland North) under National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago (USA) and USAID, Washington DC, USA, 15 June  – 31 January 2020.
  • Consultant, Prepared and Presented a Paper on Macroeconomic Environment and Outlook, World Food Programme (WFP), Harare, Zimbabwe, 5 -10 December 2019.
  • Consultant, Research and Contribution to the Development of a Technical Proposal for a 15 million pounds Project Titled: Zimbabwe Economic Stability and Transformation Programme (ZEST), UKAID/DFID Programme, Ecorys (UK) and The Palladium Group (UK), Harare, Zimbabwe, July 2019. The ZEST programme was successfully won by Ecorys (UK) and The Palladium Group (UK).
  • Senior Advisor, Business Environment Reform Facility Programme, UKAID/DFID & KPMG (UK), Harare, Zimbabwe, 14 June 2018 – 31 December 2018.
  • Consultant, Development of a Paper on State of the Economy  and Disseminated it at the British Council’s Management Express Forum in Harare and Bulawayo, British Council, Harare, Zimbabwe 1 November – 31 December 2018.
  • Senior Advisor, Business Enabling Environment Programme, UKAID/DFID & IMC Worldwide LTD (UK) Harare, Zimbabwe, 4 April 2017 – 31 December 2017.
  • Consultant, Research and Contribution to the Development of the Rationale Section as Part of the Technical Proposal for the Project entitled:  Technical Assistance support to the EPA Project (TAZEPA), Zimbabwe (EuropeAid/138789/IH/SER/ZW): Completion of deliverable 1: First Draft of Rationale, Cardno Emerging Markets (Belgium), Harare, Zimbabwe, September 2017.
  • Co – Consultant, Development of National Export Strategy for Zimbabwe, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Harare, Zimbabwe, May 2017 – September 2017.
  • Senior Advisor, Business Enabling Environment Programme, UKAID/DFID & Adam Smith International (UK), Harare, Zimbabwe, 20th January 2014 – 31 December 2016.
  • Consultant, Development of a Paper on Competitiveness Challenges in Zimbabwe and Disseminated it at the British Council’s Management Express Forum in Harare, British Council, Harare, Zimbabwe 1 – 30 April 2016.
  • Co – Consultant, Development of Youth Development Index Report for Zimbabwe, African Development Bank and United Nations Fund for Population Activities, Harare, Zimbabwe, February – April 2015.
  • Co – Consultant, Capacity Building Programmes on Participatory Budgeting, Public Private Dialogue and Local Economic Development for Zimbabwe Local Authorities (Chiredzi, Kariba and Mount Darwin), Business, Government Departments and Residence Associations. Germany Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) and Coordinated by Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce, 13 February 2012 – 30 May 2012, Zimbabwe.
  • Co – Consultant, Undertook Stock of the Public Private Sector Partnership in Zimbabwe; Reviewed the Current status of Zimbabwe’s Infrastructure with Special Focus on Water & Sanitation, Transportation, Energy & Information Communication Technologies; Identified the Missing Link; Developed Strategies to Address Challenges Facing the Infrastructures; Showcased the Role of the Private Sector in its Rehabilitation and set a Clear Plan of Action in the Context of PPPs & Drew Policy Briefs. International Council of Swedish Industries (NIR Sweden) and Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce, October 2011 – March 2012, Harare, Zimbabwe.

 

  1. GOVERNMENT ADVISORY & CONSULTANCY (SELECTED)
  • Principal Consultant, Cooperatives Baseline Survey, Ministry of Women, SMEs and Cooperative Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, 19 March 2020 – Present.
  • Member of the Advisory Team, Parliamentary Committee on Finance and Economic Development. Over the years, he  Developed and Presented Policy Proposals and Reviewed Budget Statement on Behalf of the Portfolio Committee, October 2016 - Present.
  • Member, Advisory Council for the Minister of Industry and Commerce, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1 February 2019 – Present.
  • Reviewer, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Budget Allocation, Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Parliament of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe, 20 – 27 November 2019.
  • Reviewer, National Budget Statement, Parliament of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe, 14 – 19 November 2019.
  • Principal Consultant, Local Content Requirement Framework, Ministry of Industry, Commerce & Enterprise Development, July 2016 -  29 June 2018, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Team Leader, Zimbabwe Investment Perception Survey, Office of the President and Cabinet and National Economic Consultative Forum, March 2016 – December 2017.
  • Director and Lead Author, Development of Zimbabwe National Competitiveness Report Team, 1st November 2014 – December 2017. He worked with International Experts from J.A. Austin Associates (USA) and Produced Three (3) National Competitiveness Reports for Zimbabwe whose Foreword was signed by the President of the Republic of Zimbabwe;
  • Committee Member, Office of the President and Cabinet ZIM ASSET Communication Strategy, January 2015 – December 2017.
  • Member, Ministry of Industry and Commerce’s Import Management Impact and Monitoring Committee, January 2016 – December 2017.
  • Member of the Advisory Team for the Establishment of the National Competitiveness Commission, Ministry of Industry and Commerce, Harare, Zimbabwe, June 2015 – July 2017. He worked with J.A. Austin Associates (USA) to Develop the Mandate and Principles of the National Competitiveness Commission (NCC) which was used by Government of Zimbabwe to Establish the NCC.
  • Co – Consultant, Review of Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Policy Strategies, 20 November – 31 December 2016, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Team Leader, MSMEs formalisation strategy, Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises and Cooperative Development, January 2016 – November 2016;
  • Team Leader, Development of First Ever National Trade Policy, Ministry of Industry and Commerce, January 2010 – February 2011, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Member, Special Taskforce on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee on Tobacco, the Committee which was Responsible for Coming up with a National Position Paper on the Need to Join the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control under the World Health Organisation, June 2010 – August 2010, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  1. LOCAL CONSULTING SERVICES & RESEARCH (SELECTED)
  • Director and Lead Author, State of the Economy Report, Coordinated by Africa Economic Development Strategies and The Daily News, 1 February 2019 – Present.
  • Principal Consultant, Zimbabwe Agricultural Survey, Financed by CBZ Bank, Zimbabwe Agricultural Society & Financial Gazette, Coordinated by Africa Economic Development Strategies, 1 July 2019 – Present.
  • Consultant, Review of the Impact of Removal of Subsidies and all Duties and VAT and Placement of Wheat, Maize, Flour and Maize Meal on Open Generalised Import Licence on the Milling Industry, Grain Millers Association of Zimbabwe, 28 November 2019 – 9 December 2019.
  • Principal Consultant, Zimbabwe Agricultural Survey, Financed by CBZ Bank, Zimbabwe Agricultural Society & Financial Gazette, Coordinated by Africa Economic Development Strategies, 1 August 2018 – 17 April 2019.
  • Reviewer, Options for increasing the Country’s Competitiveness and Capacity to Generate Foreign Currency, Zimbabwe Economic Policy Analysis and Research Unit, Harare, Zimbabwe, 22 – 27 August 2019.
  • Consultant, Presented External Environmental Analysis at Corporates’ Strategic Review or Annual General Meetings, that is, Seed Co International (both in Zimbabwe and South Africa), Zimplats, BDO Chartered Accountants, National Tyre Services, Lion Finance, Zimpapers, Cell Insurance, Dairibord Holdings, TSL Holdings, Construction Industry Pension Fund, ZESA Pension Fund, TelOne, Agricultural Medical Society (Agrimed), Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries, Employers Confederation of Zimbabwe (EMCOZ), Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce, Hospitality Association of Zimbabwe, Buy Zimbabwe Trust, Poverty Reduction Forum Trust, etc October 2017 - Present.
  • Lead Consultant, Sensitisation Workshops and Awareness Campaigns on Price Monitoring to Millers and Retailers, Grain Millers Association of Zimbabwe, Masvingo, Kwekwe, Mutare, Gweru, Bulawayo, Marondera and Harare, 30 May – 14 June 2019.
  • Lead Consultant, Snacks Manufacturers Association of Zimbabwe, Research on Impediments affecting the Snacks Manufacturers in Zimbabwe and Development of a policy brief and Presented it to the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development, 1 – 20 November 2018, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Lead Consultant, Wheat Bread Value Chain Study, Commissioned by the Grain Millers Association of Zimbabwe, 1 February 2018 – 30 April 2018.
  • Lead Consultant, Probe Market Research’s Market Analysis for the LPG, Commissioned by the National Oil Company of Zimbabwe, September – October 2017, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Lead Reviewer, Probe Market Research’s Customer Satisfaction Survey for the Zimbabwe’s Energy Regulatory Authority (ZERA), Commissioned by ZERA, October 2017, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Consultant, Development of a Syndicated Payment System Concept for the Maize Grain, Commissioned by the Metropolitan Bank, 1 August 2017 – 30 September 2017, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Consultant, Development of an Advisory Note on the Impact of Grain Millers of Zimbabwe on the Milling Industry in Zimbabwe, Commissioned by the Grain Millers of Zimbabwe and Metropolitan Bank, 1 July 2017 – 31 August 2018, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Lead Consultant, Probe Market Research’s Market Analysis for the Zimbabwe’s Baking Industry, Commissioned by the National Bakers Association of Zimbabwe, December 2016 – 31 May 2017, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  1. OTHER EXTENSION WORK/COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT (SELECTED)
  • Committee Member, Trade and Policy Advocacy Sub Committee, Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce, 1 March 2020 – Present.
  • Peer Reviewer, Bachelor of Commerce in Development Economics Honours, Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education, Harare, Zimbabwe, November 2019.
  • External Examiner, Application for Senior Lectureship, Dr David Damiyano, Economics Department, Bindura University of Science Education, Bindura, Zimbabwe, March 2019.
  • Committee Member, Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries (CZI)’s SMEs Business Linkages Committee February 2016 – December 2017.
  1. CONFERENCE, SEMINARS AND PAPER PRESENTATIONS (SELECTED)
  • Paper Presenter, State of the Economy Report: Showcasing the Ugly Face of Dollarisation, Organised by the Daily News and Africa Economic Development Strategies and Funded by Mimosa, Rainbow Towers, 13 March 2020.
  • Paper Presenter, An Analysis of the 2020 Budget Highlights and Its Impact on Business, Organised and Funded by BDO Chartered Accountants, Holiday Inn, Bulawayo, 11 December 2019.
  • Paper Presenter, An Analysis of the 2020 Budget Highlights and Its Impact on Business, Organised and Funded by BDO Chartered Accountants, Cresta Lodge, Harare, 21 November 2019.
  • Paper Presenter, Internal Consistency and Pragmatism of Expenditure Proposals and Forecasts, Post Budget Conference, Parliament of Zimbabwe, Rainbow Towers, Harare, Zimbabwe, 18 November 2019
  • Discussant, Energy Innovation Summit, Organised by the Financial Gazette with the Minister of Energy and Power Development as the Guest of Honour, Rainbow Towers, Harare, Zimbabwe, 24          October 2019.
  • Paper Presenter, Review of Monetary and Fiscal Policy Measures: Lessons and Options, Parliament of Zimbabwe, Rainbow Towers, Harare, Zimbabwe, 21 October 2019.
  • Paper Presenter, the 4th Industrial Revolution, at the ZimTrade Exporters Conference where the President of Zimbabwe, H.E. President Mnangagwa was the Guest of Honour, Zimbabwe International Trade Fair Grounds, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, 17 – 18 October 2019.
  • Paper Presenter, The Effects of Macroeconomic Environment on Business, Employers Confederation of Zimbabwe (EMCOZ), Holiday Inn, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, 25 September 2019.
  • Paper Presenter, The State of the Economy Report, Coordinated by the Daily News and Africa Economic Development Strategies, 12 September 2019, Rainbow Towers, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Panellist, The State of Industry Breakfast Meeting where the Minister of Industry and Commerce was the Guest of Honour, Rainbow Towers Hotel, 15 July 2019, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Paper Presenter, Opportunities for Local Enterprises Through Import Substitution, 9th Buy Zimbabwe Summit, 4 July 2019, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
  • Paper Presenter, The State of the Economy Report, Coordinated by the Daily News and Africa Economic Development Strategies, 7 May 2019, Cresta Lodge, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Paper Presenter, State of the Agricultural Sector, Coordinated by Africa Economic Development Strategies, Financial Gazette and Zimbabwe Agricultural Society and Financed by the Commercial Bank of Zimbabwe, 17 April 2019, Rainbow Towers, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Discussant at the Review of the Monetary Policy where the Governor of Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe and Minister of Finance and Economic Development made presentations on monetary policy presented on 20 February 2019, Financed by Daily News, 22 February 2019, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Paper Presenter, Internal Consistency, Realism and Reasonableness of Expenditure Proposals and Forecasts to Members of Parliament of Zimbabwe, 26 November 2018, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Paper Presenter, The Economic Outlook, Hospitality Association of Zimbabwe Annual General Meeting, 28 June 2018, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
  • Paper Presenter, Local Content Nexus Economic Development, 8th Buy Zimbabwe Annual Summit, 13 June 2018, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
  • Paper Presenter, Closing Infrastructure for Industrial Development, International Business Conference with the Vice President of Zimbabwe in attendance, Zimbabwe International Trade Fair, 25 April 2018, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
  • Presented a Paper on Responding to the New Global Order as a Key Note Speaker at Ministry of Industry and Commerce’s Strategic Retreat where the Minister of Industry was Guest of Honour, 16 January 2017, Kariba, Zimbabwe.
  • Paper Presenter, Unpacking Zimbabwe’s Competitiveness Challenges, British Council Funded Workshop, 26 April 2016, Meikles Hotel, Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Participated at a Training Seminar on Making Markets Work for the Poor, Organised and Facilitated by the Springfield Centre, Funded by UKAID/Adam Smith International, 8 – 20th November 2015, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • Presented a Paper on The Impact of COMESA FTA on Zimbabwe at an International Conference Organised by Southern African Institute for Management Scientists, 14 - 17 September 2014, Riverside Sun Resort, Vanberbijlpark, South Africa.
  • Participated at the 15th China International Fair for Investment and Trade, Organised by Ministry of Industry and Commerce Zimbabwe, Sponsored by Builders Depot, 7th September – 11th September 2011, Xiamen, China.
  • Participated at a SADC/European Union Senior Officials Meeting, Organised by SADC and the EU, Sponsored by the European Union, 16 November – 17 November 2010, Gaborone, Botswana.
  • Participated at the Sub Committee on Audit and Budgetary Matters, Organised by COMESA, Sponsored by the COMESA, 8th November 2010 – 10 November 2010, Lusaka, Zambia.
  • Accompanied the President of Republic of Zimbabwe, His Excellency, Robert Gabriel Mugabe to 14th Heads of State and Government Summit, Organised by COMESA, Sponsored by the Government of Zimbabwe, 31st August – 1st September 2010, Lozitha Palace, (Swaziland State House) Swaziland.
  • Participated at the 6th COMESA Business Forum and Regional Trade Exhibition, Organised by COMESA Business Council and Federation of Swaziland Employers and Chamber of Commerce, Funded by COMESA, CIDA and USAID, 27th August – 28th August 2010, Swaziland.
  • Actively Participated at the 28th Manzini Meeting of Council of Ministers Committee, Organised by COMESA, Sponsored by the Government of Zimbabwe, 25th August – 26th August 2010, Ezulwini, Swaziland.
  • Participated at the 28th Meeting of the Intergovernmental Committee, Organised by COMESA, Sponsored by the Government of Zimbabwe, 21st August – 23rd August 2010, Ezulwini, Swaziland.
  • Represented the Zimbabwe at World Trade Senior Officials Meeting, Organised by WTO Secretariat, Sponsored by the Government of Zimbabwe, 22nd – 26th March 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Accompanied the Minister of Industry and Commerce, Professor Welshman Ncube, to the 90th Session of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Council of Ministers of Trade, ACP House, Sponsored by the Government of Zimbabwe 16th – 19th November 2009, Brussels, Belgium.
  • Participated at the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of Countries, Senior Officials of Trade, Sponsored by the Government of Zimbabwe Organised by the ACP, 11th – 13th November 2009, Brussels, Belgium.
  • Represented Zimbabwe at the SADC Technical Committee on Sugar, Organised by SADC Technical Committee on Sugar, Sponsored by the Government of Zimbabwe, 2nd – 3rd, November 2009, Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • Paper Presenter on the Future Prospects of The Zimbabwean Economy at the International Trade and World Trade Organisation For African Countries Seminar, Organised by Korea International Trade Agency, Sponsored by Korea International Cooperation Agency, 21st May 2009 – 05th June 2009, Seoul, South Korea.
  • Paper Presenter on the Role of Trade in the Development Process of Developing Countries at the Industrial Economic Development Seminar Among Developing Countries, Sponsored by the Ministry of Commerce, Organised by China Centre For Business Cooperation and Coordination, October 10th – October 30th, 2007, Beijing, People Republic of China